SQL for JSON and Schema Support (Part 5): Intermezzo 3 – MongoDB’s $jsonschema

The previous blog discussed MongoDB’s $jsonschema behavior with a strict validation level. Let’s look at the moderate validation level in this blog.

Example

As usual, first, let’s create a collection and add a few JSON documents to it. Afterwards a schema validation is added with the moderate setting (the following is based on MongoDB version 3.6.1).

> mongo
> use moderate_exploration

Initially, before adding a schema, two JSON objects are inserted that are not compliant with the schema that is going to be added afterwards. The reason is that we need non-compliant JSON objects to discuss the moderate level later.

> db.orders.insert({
   "orderId": 1,
   "orderDate": ISODate("2017-09-30T00:00:00Z"),
   "orderLineItems": [{
    "itemId": 55,
    "numberOrdered": 20
    }, {
    "itemId": 56,
    "numberOrdered": 21
   }],
   "specialInstructions": "Drop of in front, 
                           not back of location"
  })
WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })
> db.orders.insert({
   "orderId": 2,
   "orderDate": ISODate("2017-09-30T00:00:00Z"),
   "orderLineItems": [{
    "itemId": 55,
    "numberOrdered": 40
    }, {
    "itemId": 56,
    "numberOrdered": 41
   }],
   "preferredColor": "red"
  })
WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })

Now the schema is added:

> db.runCommand({ 
   "collMod": "orders",
   "validator": {  
    "$jsonSchema": {   
      "bsonType": "object",
       "required": ["orderId", "orderDate", "orderLineItems"],
       "properties": {
        "orderId": { 
         "bsonType": "int",
         "description": "Order Identifier: must be of 
                         type int and is required"
        },
        "orderDate": { 
         "bsonType": "date",
         "description": "Order Date: must be of 
                         type date and is required"
        },
        "orderLineItems": { 
         "bsonType": "array",
         "items": {  
          "bsonType": "object",
          "properties": {   
           "itemId": {    
           "bsonType": "int"   
           },
           "numberOrdered": {    
           "bsonType": "int"   
           }  
          } 
         },
         "description": "Order Line Items: must be of 
                         type array and is required"
      }   
     }  
    } 
   },
   "validationLevel": "moderate",
   "validationAction": "error"
  })
{ "ok" : 1 }

After the schema is added, two more JSON objects are inserted, this time being schema compliant.

> db.orders.insert({
   "orderId": NumberInt(3),
   "orderDate": ISODate("2017-09-30T00:00:00Z"),
   "orderLineItems": [{
    "itemId": NumberInt(55),
    "numberOrdered": NumberInt(60)
    }, {
    "itemId": NumberInt(56),
    "numberOrdered": NumberInt(61)
   }]
  })
WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })
> db.orders.insert({
   "orderId": NumberInt(4),
   "orderDate": ISODate("2017-09-30T00:00:00Z"),
   "orderLineItems": [{
    "itemId": NumberInt(55),
    "numberOrdered": NumberInt(80)
    }, {
    "itemId": NumberInt(56),
    "numberOrdered": NumberInt(81)
   }]
  })
WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })

At this point the created collection is governed by a schema, and contains four JSON documents, two are compliant with the schema (orderId 3 and 4), and two are not compliant (orderId 1 and 2).

Analysis

The MongoDB documentation states for “moderate”: “Apply validation rules to inserts and to updates on existing valid documents. Do not apply rules to updates on existing invalid documents.” (https://docs.mongodb.com/manual/reference/command/collMod/#validationLevel).

Let’s explore now the behavior of the moderate validation level.

First, let’s try to insert a non-compliant JSON document. The insert will fail as expected:

> db.orders.insert({
   "orderId": 5,
   "orderDate": ISODate("2017-09-30T00:00:00Z"),
   "orderLineItems": [{
    "itemId": 55,
    "numberOrdered": 40
    }, {
    "itemId": 56,
    "numberOrdered": 41
   }],
   "preferredColor": "red"
  })
WriteResult({
 "nInserted": 0,
 "writeError": {
  "code": 121,
  "errmsg": "Document failed validation"
 }
})

Second, let’s try to update a compliant JSON document that already exists in the collection in a non-compliant way:

> db.orders.update({  
   "orderId": NumberInt(3) 
   }, {  
   "$set": {   
    "orderDate": "2018-01-09"  
   } 
  })

As expected the update fails:

WriteResult({
 "nMatched" : 0,
 "nUpserted" : 0,
 "nModified" : 0,
 "writeError" : {
  "code" : 121,
  "errmsg" : "Document failed validation"
 }
})

Third, let’s try to update a non-compliant JSON document

> db.orders.update({  
   "orderId": NumberInt(1) 
   }, {  
   "$set": {   
    "orderDate": "2018-01-10"  
   } 
  })

As per the above explanation of moderate this should work and indeed it does:

WriteResult({
 "nMatched": 1,
 "nUpserted": 0,
 "nModified": 1
})

Bypassing Validation

With the correct permission (https://docs.mongodb.com/manual/reference/privilege-actions/#bypassDocumentValidation) it is possible to bypass document validation.

This allows for the situation that e.g. a collection is governed by a new schema, however, existing application code might have to continue to insert or to update documents with a structure that violates the new schema as the logic cannot be adjusted to the new schema quickly enough (including transforming the non-compliant to compliant JSON documents).

Summary

The brief analysis of MongoDB wrt. document validation in context of JSON schemas added to collections in the last three blogs showed that while schema supervision is possible, it is not as strict as in relational database management systems.

Basically, if a schema is present, a user cannot infer that all documents in that collection comply to that schema. A schema related to a collection can be changed, and existing documents that would violate the new schema on insert will not be discarded from the collection. Furthermore, properties that are not covered by the schema can be added and changed freely.

Go [ JSON | Relational ] SQL!

Disclaimer

The views expressed on this blog are my own and do not necessarily reflect the views of Oracle.

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SQL for JSON and Schema Support (Part 4): Intermezzo 2 – MongoDB’s $jsonschema

After some initial exploration in the previous blog, more aspects on MongoDB’s $jsonschema are looked at in the following.

Example

First, let’s create a collection as follows. It is governed by a schema, and validation is in the strictest setting (the following is based on MongoDB version 3.6.0).

> mongo
> use more_exploration
> db.createCollection("orders", {
  "validator": {
   "$jsonSchema": {
    "bsonType": "object",
    "required": ["orderId", "orderDate", "orderLineItems"],
    "properties": {
     "orderId": {
      "bsonType": "int",
      "description": "Order Identifier: must be of 
                     type int and is required"
     },
     "orderDate": {
      "bsonType": "date",
      "description": "Order Date: must be of 
                     type date and is required"
     },
     "orderLineItems": {
      "bsonType": "array",
      "items": {
       "bsonType": "object",
       "properties": {
        "itemId": {
         "bsonType": "int"
        },
        "numberOrdered": {
         "bsonType": "int"
        }
       }
      },
      "description": "Order Line Items: must be of 
                     type array and is required"
     }
    }
   }
  },
  "validationLevel": "strict",
  "validationAction": "error"
 })
{ "ok" : 1 }

The two documents from the example outlined in the initial blog of series are added next.

> db.orders.insert({
   "orderId": NumberInt(1),
   "orderDate": new Date("2017-09-30"),
   "orderLineItems": [{
     "itemId": NumberInt(55),
     "numberOrdered": NumberInt(20)
    },
    {
     "itemId": NumberInt(56),
     "numberOrdered": NumberInt(21)
    }
   ]
  })
WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })
> db.orders.insert({
   "orderId": NumberInt(2),
   "orderDate": new Date("2017-09-30"),
   "orderLineItems": [{
     "itemId": NumberInt(55),
     "numberOrdered": NumberInt(30)
    },
    {
     "itemId": NumberInt(56),
     "numberOrdered": NumberInt(31)
    }
   ]
  })
WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })

Insert Strictness and Partial Schema Coverage

The validator is in place on the collection “orders”. This can be verified with the command

> db.getCollectionInfos({name: "orders"})

Now let’s try and add a document that has additional properties in addition to those that comply with the schema as follows:

> db.orders.insert({
   "orderId": NumberInt(3),
   "orderDate": new Date("2017-09-30"),
   "orderLineItems": [{
     "itemId": NumberInt(55),
     "numberOrdered": NumberInt(40)
    },
    {
     "itemId": NumberInt(56),
     "numberOrdered": NumberInt(41)
    }
   ],
   "preferredColor": "red"
  })
WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })

It appears that as long as the schema is satisfied, additional properties can be inserted. So the schema is not completely covering the object to be inserted, but only those properties that are defined in the schema (validator). It is a partial schema coverage.

Here is the counter example: the value of the property “orderLineItems” is not in compliance, and so the insertion fails:

> db.orders.insert({
   "orderId": NumberInt(4),
   "orderDate": new Date("2017-09-30"),
   "orderLineItems": ["b", "g"],
   "preferredColor": "red"
  })
WriteResult({
 "nInserted": 0,
 "writeError": {
  "code": 121,
  "errmsg": "Document failed validation"
 }
})

Update Strictness and Partial Schema Coverage

The following updates an existing document:

> db.orders.update({
   "orderId": NumberInt(2)
  }, {
   "$set": {
    "orderDate": new Date("2017-10-01")
   }
  })
WriteResult({
 "nMatched": 1,
 "nUpserted": 0,
 "nModified": 1
})

In part 1 of this blog series the order with identifier 1 was updated to add a property “specialInstructions”. This is not schema compliant, however, the update is possible as it does not violate that part of the document that is covered by the schema.

> db.orders.update({
   "orderId": NumberInt(1)
   }, {
   "$set": {
    "specialInstructions": "Drop of in front, 
                           not back of location"
   }
  })
WriteResult({
 "nMatched": 1,
 "nUpserted": 0,
 "nModified": 1
})

Partial schema coverage applies to update as well, not just to inserts.

An example of a non-compliant update is the following:

> db.orders.update({
   "orderId": NumberInt(2)
  }, {
   "$set": {
    "orderDate": "2017-09-30"
   }
  })
WriteResult({
 "nMatched": 0,
 "nUpserted": 0,
 "nModified": 0,
 "writeError": {
  "code": 121,
  "errmsg": "Document failed validation"
 }
})

Summary

MongoDB supports partial schema coverage in strict mode, meaning, properties defined in the schema must match the schema, however, properties not specified in the schema can be added or modified without rejection.

This means (again) that examining the JSON schema validator of a MongoDB collection only indicates properties common to all documents, but not the complete set of properties of all documents.

The next blog examines the non-strict validation setting of a JSON schema validator in MongoDB.

Go [ JSON | Relational ] SQL!

Disclaimer

The views expressed on this blog are my own and do not necessarily reflect the views of Oracle.

SQL for JSON and Schema Support (Part 3): Intermezzo 1 – MongoDB’s $jsonschema

MongoDB introduced support for JSON Schema through $jsonschema. Let’s explore this new functionality a bit in this blog.

$jsonschema

The functionality is introduced here: https://docs.mongodb.com/master/reference/operator/query/jsonSchema/#op._S_jsonSchema It states “$jsonSchema can be used in a document validator, which enforces that inserted or updated documents are valid against the schema.”

A first item to note is that this approach is supporting BSON types (http://bsonspec.org/, https://docs.mongodb.com/master/reference/operator/query/type/), not just JSON structures (https://www.json.org/), using a specific property “bsonType” that is not part of the JSON Schema standard (http://json-schema.org/).

A second observation is that the schema specification is inline with the collection creation and cannot refer to a separate JSON schema file or JSON object representing a JSON schema.

JSON Schema Validator Example

Let’s use the example of the first blog in this series, create a schema for it and use that as a constraint for the “orders” collection. Then documents are added to the collection (and there seem to be errors as well). For reference the version used is: MongoDB server version: 3.6.0.

> mongo
> use schema_exploration
> db.createCollection("orders", {
  "validator": {
   "$jsonSchema": {
    "bsonType": "object",
    "required": ["orderId", "orderDate", "orderLineItems"],
    "properties": {
     "orderId": {
      "bsonType": "int",
      "description": "Order Identifier: must be of 
                     type int and is required"
     },
     "orderDate": {
      "bsonType": "date",
      "description": "Order Date: must be of 
                     type date and is required"
     },
     "orderLineItems": {
      "bsonType": "array",
      "items": {
       "bsonType": "string"
      },
      "description": "Order Line Items: must be of 
                     type array and is required"
     }
    }
   }
  }
 })
{ "ok" : 1 }

A quick note: “bsonType” can be used in all levels in order to refer to BSON types, not just on the top level.

> db.orders.insert({
  "orderId": NumberInt(1),
  "orderDate": new Date("2017-09-30"),
  "orderLineItems": [{
   "itemId": 55,
   "numberOrdered": 30
  }, {
   "itemId": 56,
   "numberOrdered": 31
  }]
 })
WriteResult({
 "nInserted": 0,
 "writeError": {
  "code": 121,
  "errmsg": "Document failed validation"
 }
})

Along the way I ran into a validation issue as I constraint the array elements to strings, rather than objects, as used in the example of the first blog in this series. So I made a schema definition mistake.

To note is that the response on the shell does not indicate what the problem was making debugging hard, especially when large and complex schemas are to be debugged.

> db.orders.insert({
  "orderId": NumberInt(1),
  "orderDate": new Date("2017-09-30"),
  "orderLineItems": ["a", "b"]
 })
WriteResult({
 "nInserted": 1
})

Once I realized the mistake I made, I inserted a document complying to the schema in order to make sure I identified the issue correctly.

JSON Schema Validator Update

Obviously, after defining a wrong schema, the correct schema should be used as validator.

This is the correct schema:

{
 "bsonType": "object",
 "required": ["orderId", "orderDate", "orderLineItems"],
 "properties": {
  "orderId": {
   "bsonType": "int",
   "description": "Order Identifier: must be of 
                  type int and is required"
  },
  "orderDate": {
   "bsonType": "date",
   "description": "Order Date: must be of 
                  type date and is required"
  },
  "orderLineItems": {
   "bsonType": "array",
   "items": {
    "bsonType": "object",
    "properties": {
     "itemId": {
      "bsonType": "int"
     },
     "numberOrdered": {
      "bsonType": "int"
     }
    }
   },
   "description": "Order Line Items: must be of 
                  type array and is required"
   }
  }
 }

And this is the command to update the validator:

> db.runCommand({
  "collMod": "orders",
  "validator": {
   "$jsonSchema": {
    "bsonType": "object",
    "required": ["orderId", "orderDate", "orderLineItems"],
    "properties": {
     "orderId": {
      "bsonType": "int",
      "description": "Order Identifier: must be of 
                     type int and is required"
     },
     "orderDate": {
      "bsonType": "date",
      "description": "Order Date: must be of 
                     type date and is required"
     },
     "orderLineItems": {
      "bsonType": "array",
      "items": {
       "bsonType": "object",
       "properties": {
        "itemId": {
         "bsonType": "int"
        },
        "numberOrdered": {
         "bsonType": "int"
        }
       }
      },
      "description": "Order Line Items: must be of 
                     type array and is required"
     }
    }
   }
  },
  "validationLevel": "strict"
 })
{ "ok" : 1 }

Some background on the command used is here: https://docs.mongodb.com/master/reference/command/collMod/.

Following is an attempt to add one more of the (now mismatching) documents:

> db.orders.insert({
  "orderId": NumberInt(1),
  "orderDate": new Date("2017-09-30"),
  "orderLineItems": ["a", "b"]
 })
WriteResult({
 "nInserted": 0,
 "writeError": {
  "code": 121,
  "errmsg": "Document failed validation"
 }
})

As it should be, the insert fails.

And here the insert of a now correct document:

> db.orders.insert({
  "orderId": NumberInt(1),
  "orderDate": new Date("2017-09-30"),
  "orderLineItems": [{
   "itemId": NumberInt(55),
   "numberOrdered": NumberInt(20)
  }, {
   "itemId": NumberInt(56),
   "numberOrdered": NumberInt(21)
  }]
 });
WriteResult({
 "nInserted": 1
})

Collection Inconsistency: Mismatch of Schema and Documents

There is an interesting issue appearing at this point. The new schema does not match all existing documents in the collection. Or the other way around: the collection now contains documents that do not match that schema.

> db.orders.find()
{
 "_id": ObjectId("5a2022c3fb460d15db9ec73e"),
 "orderId": 1,
 "orderDate": ISODate("2017-09-30T00:00:00Z"),
 "orderLineItems": ["a", "b"]
} {
 "_id": ObjectId("5a202322fb460d15db9ec741"),
 "orderId": 1,
 "orderDate": ISODate("2017-09-30T00:00:00Z"),
 "orderLineItems": [{
  "itemId": 55,
  "numberOrdered": 20
 }, {
  "itemId": 56,
  "numberOrdered": 21
 }]
}

MongoDB did not flag that there are documents in the collection that will not match the new schema (even though the validation level strict was used).

Adding a validation action with value of “error” does not change the situation, either.

Implication to Semantics

Given that the schema of a collection can be changed at any time, and given that MongoDB does not fail the schema update based on mismatching documents already in the collection, examining the schema is insufficient to understand the structure of the documents in a collection.

So a collection with a schema does not ensure that all documents in that collection are schema compliant. It rather insures that from the point in time the schema was added or updated documents will have to comply. Previous documents in the collections are not affected.

Summary

The notion of “schema” in context of MongoDB is very different from the notion of “schema” in context of relational database management systems. In MongoDB the documents in the collection do not have to comply to the schema; they only do have to comply at time of insertion.

There will be more exploration coming up in the next blog on this topic in order to further understand the semantics of “schema” in context of MongoDB.

Go [ JSON | Relational ] SQL!

Disclaimer

The views expressed on this blog are my own and do not necessarily reflect the views of Oracle.

SQL for JSON and Schema Support (Part 2): Where does the “Interesting” Code go?

The previous blog found that the “generic” indirect representation of JSON data is one way of supporting “schema-free” JSON objects or documents. Where does the “interesting” functional code live?

Indirect Representation

To recap, the indirect representation is a set of classes, functions, etc. (depending on programming language) that can manage JSON objects or JSON documents. All or most languages have libraries supporting JSON manipulation. For example, Jackson is such a library for Java.

These JSON libraries can manage any valid JSON structure, and they do not require a schema or the JSON objects being homogeneous. Two JSON objects representing the same concept like an order with different attributes (as shown in the previous blog) can be managed by such JSON libraries.

Structural Manipulation

Structural manipulation of JSON objects supports the addition, update or deletion of properties (members) as well as JSON array elements. Property values can be replaced, for example, a JSON string with a JSON object.

Through structural manipulation it is possible to change a JSON object as needed, when e.g. new details appear in form of additional properties.

Structural manipulation was demonstrated in a database context in the last blog: properties were added through the update statement. The same is possible in the indirect representation libraries in the various programming languages.

Computation

Structural manipulation is not the only code that is required as structural manipulation does not allow to compute any specific application semantics. For example, in context of orders, the total value of not yet shipped orders might be a value that needs to be computed.

In a database context this would be an aggregation query that sums up the amount of all orders that do not have the status of shipped.

In context of a programming language it would require a function that iterates through all orders and, like in the database aggregation approach, adds up the sum of those orders that have not shipped yet.

It probably would be implemented as a set of cooperating functions, like

DollarAmount getValueOfOrdersNotShipped(JSONArray orders)
boolean hasOrderShipped(JSONObject order)
DollarAmount getValueOfOrder(JSONObject order)

JSONArray as well as JSONObject are an example of an indirect representation holding order data as a JSON structure.

Note: of course, in the absence of a schema (which is assumed here), there is no assurance that the JSONArray or the JSONObject contain only orders or that the orders are homogeneous in structure. There has to be “trust” that this is indeed the case.

If validation is desired, and if no schema is available, then the only alternative is validating values in one or more JSON object properties. For example, order identifiers might be of a specific structure that uniquely identifies an identifier being an order identifier. This would require trust that the algorithms creating identifiers are correct.

Separation of Manipulation and Computation

The JSON libraries supporting the indirect representation are separate from the functional code (like the summing up of order values). The software architecture and design has to structure this separation and ideally ensures that all functions concerned with orders are “close” from a code structure or software architecture perspective.

There might be functions that can be reused across different concepts (like orders, returns, shipments, etc.), and they can be refactored out, of course, as in “normal” functional code.

Given the above rationalization, how does the absence of a schema come into the picture?

Implication of Schema Free JSON Objects

Since there is no schema, JSON objects can have a different structure even though they represent the same concepts. In context of orders,  let’s look at two use cases:

  • An order does not have a shipping status
  • An order does have a value but in a variety of data types

In a world without schema these are possible use cases and the functional code needs to check for those.

Addressing the first use case can be accomplished by checking for existence. Code can check if a property is present and react accordingly. In the above example, the code designer can choose to have hasOrderShipped() return false or throw an error in case there is no shipping status.

The second use case can be addressed by checking for the type of the value of the order. If possible, value transformations can be implemented in getValueOfOrder(), e.g., string to number; if it is not possible to transform, an error can be thrown.

Summary

In a schema free JSON context there are several aspects from a code perspective: functional code implementing application semantics is separate from the code that manages the structure of JSON objects. That separation must be carefully managed from an architectural perspective.

The functional code must anticipate non-homogeneous JSON objects and check for variation in order to be able to implement the functionality accurately.

But wait, there is more:-) The next blog will venture into more nuances.

Go [ JSON | Relational ] SQL!

Disclaimer

The views expressed on this blog are my own and do not necessarily reflect the views of Oracle.

Oracle 12c – In-Memory Option (Part 3): JSON Support

It is quite natural to view Oracle’s In-Memory Option in context of the relational model; however, the In-Memory Option supports the JSON model at the same time as well.

Oracle JSON Support

As shown earlier in this blog, the Oracle 12c database supports JSON natively [http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ADXDB/json.htm#ADXDB6246] and incorporates JSON access into SQL so that JSON structures can be accessed through SQL directly. In addition, in a single SQL statement, JSON structures as well as relational tables can be accessed at the same time. Please see the documentation and the other blog entries for more details.

Oracle In-Memory Option

The In-Memory Option [http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/features/database-in-memory-option/] was introduced in the previous two blog entries and those discussed a relational example as well as queries that allow to introspect the meta data and status of the In-Memory Option processing. It gave an overview as well as the rationale why using the In-Memory Option for analytic queries is advantageous over regular relational processing (columnar representation of data in main memory).

Combination: JSON processing using In-Memory Option

Analytics in context of JSON structures would benefit from In-Memory Option support as well. Many applications based on JSON structures usually have to support some form of analytics. The In-Memory Option supports aggregation functionality on JSON structures as well as on relational tables.

In the following, an example is introduced that creates a table containing a JSON structure, enables it for In-Memory Option support and shows a few simple analytics queries.

Example Table with JSON Structure

The following declares a sample table with a column containing a JSON structure.

DROP TABLE js_players;
CREATE TABLE js_players
 (
   player_id NUMBER NOT NULL,
   player_name VARCHAR(255),
   games VARCHAR(4000) 
    CONSTRAINT games_ensure_json
    CHECK (games IS JSON (STRICT WITH UNIQUE KEYS)));

Table Population

In order to have a large data set the following block creates rows containing JSON structures and inserting them into the above declared table.

DECLARE
  counter NUMBER;
  player_name VARCHAR(128);
  games_value VARCHAR (256);
BEGIN
  counter := 0;
  LOOP
    counter := counter + 1;
    player_name := 'Divvon' || '_' || counter;
    games_value := '{ "games":
      [{"name":"tic-tac-toe", 
        "points":' || counter *10 || '},
       {"name":"one-two-three", 
        "points":' || counter * 100 || '}
      ]}';
    INSERT INTO js_players VALUES
      (counter, player_name, games_value);
  EXIT
    WHEN counter = 1000000;
  END LOOP;
  COMMIT;
  RETURN;
END;

An example JSON document looks like this:

{"games":
  [{"name":"tic-tac-toe", "points":750},
   {"name":"one-two-three", "points":7500}
  ]}

Enabling In-Memory Option

This statement enables the In-Memory Option for the table containing JSON structures:

ALTER TABLE js_players inmemory priority critical;

Aggregation Queries

The following queries show aggregation over elements of the JSON structures. Each query extracts all ‘points’ values from the JSON structure (since every document might have several ‘points’ fields in the array of ‘games’) and makes is accessible as ‘pts.points’. Then it aggregates over this structure. The first query aggregates over all rows, whereas the second query is selecting only a few rows based on ‘player_name’.

SELECT DISTINCT p.player_name,
       SUM(pts.points) sum_points,
       MIN(pts.points) min_points,
       MAX(pts.points) max_points,
       AVG(pts.points) avg_points,
       COUNT(*)
FROM js_players p,
     json_table(p.games, 
                '$.games[*]' COLUMNS (points VARCHAR2(32 CHAR) PATH '$.points')) 
         AS pts
GROUP BY p.player_name
ORDER BY sum_points DESC;

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SELECT DISTINCT p.player_name,
       SUM(pts.points) sum_points,
       MIN(pts.points) min_points,
       MAX(pts.points) max_points,
       AVG(pts.points) avg_points,
       COUNT(*)
FROM js_players p,
     json_table(p.games, 
                '$.games[*]' COLUMNS (points VARCHAR2(32 CHAR) PATH '$.points')) 
       AS pts
WHERE p.player_name = 'Divvon_204'
      OR p.player_name = 'Divvon_206'
GROUP BY p.player_name
ORDER BY sum_points DESC;

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Summary

Oracle’s In-Memory Option, because it not only supports the relational model, but also the JSON model, is an interesting alternative to analytics in context of JSON data sets. This blog has shown an example of how to combine JSON structures and the In-Memory Option in order to be able to run analytics queries.

Go SQL!

Disclaimer

The views expressed on this blog are my own and do not necessarily reflect the views of Oracle.